Adult-Onset Still’s disease is a rare type of inflammatory arthritis which features rash, fevers & joint pain. Some people are found to have just a single episode of Adult-Onset Still’s disease, while for others this condition either recurs or persists. Moreover, this inflammation can usually destroy affected joints & more particularly the wrist joints. Treatments generally involve medications like prednisone, which helps in controlling inflammation.
Signs & Symptoms of Adult-Onset Still’s Disease
Most people suffering from Adult-Onset Still’s disease display a combination of the following signs & symptoms.
- Fever – Patients might experience fever every day of at least 38.9 C (102 F) for at least a week or longer. This fever will usually peak in late afternoon or during early evening. Adult-Onset Still’s disease patients may at times have two fever spikes every day, with temperatures returning to normal in between.
- Rash – A salmon-pink rash may also come & go along with the fever. This rash will usually appear on patient’s legs, arms or the trunk.
- Sore Throat – This is one of the first signs & symptoms of Adult-Onset Still’s disease where lymph nodes in the neck region might be tender or swollen.
- Swollen & Achy Glands – Patient’s joints, especially the knee & wrist joints may turn painful, stiff & inflamed. Other joints which may also ache include shoulders, hands, elbows & ankles. This discomfort with joints may last for at least two weeks.
- Muscle Pain – Adult-Onset Still’s disease muscular pain symptoms usually ebb & flow with the fever. But then, this pain in some cases can be severe enough so as to disrupt daily activities.
However, signs & symptoms of Adult-Onset Still’s disease can mimic those of several other conditions including lupus or a specific type of cancer which is called lymphoma.
Time to Seek Medical Help for Adult-Onset Still’s Disease
It is time to see the doctor when people are having high fever & rashes along with achy joints. It is also high time that people see doctors when they are having Adult-Onset Still’s disease & are having difficulty in breathing, developed cough, chest pain & various other unusual symptoms.
Causes of Adult-Onset Still’s Disease
It is yet not certain as to what exactly causes adult-Onset Still’s disease. However, some researchers suspect that this condition may be triggered by a bacterial or viral infection.
Risk Factors Associated with Adult-Onset Still’s Disease
Age is one of the main risk factors for developing Adult-Onset Still’s disease. Generally, these incidences are found to peak twice; once between 15 – 25 years of age & then once again between 36 – 46 years of age. Moreover, both males & females are equally at risk of developing Adult-Onset Still’s disease.
Complications Associated with Adult-Onset Still’s Disease
Most complications associated with Adult-Onset Still’s disease are found to arise from chronic inflammation of joints & organs.
- Joint Destruction – Chronic inflammation can often damage joints. Most common joints involved in this disease are the wrists & knees. Patient’s neck, fingers, foot & hip joints may also be affected, however much less frequently.
- Inflammation of Heart – Adult-Onset Still’s disease can quite often lead to inflammation of saclike covering of the heart called pericarditis or inflammation of muscular portion of the heart & which is called Myocarditis.
- Excessive Fluid Around Lungs – Inflammation around lungs can cause fluid buildup. This will make it hard for the patient to breathe deeply.
- Macrophage Activation Syndrome – This is a rare but potentially a fatal complication for people with Adult-Onset Still’s disease. This is quite often a potentially fatal complication of Adult-Onset Still’s disease & which can cause very high triglyceride levels & abnormal liver functions.
Diagnosing Adult-Onset Still’s Disease
There is no single test which can identify adult-Onset Still’s disease. Imaging tests can however reveal damage which is caused by this disease, while blood tests would help to rule out other conditions which are having similar symptoms.
Preparing for Adult-Onset Still’s Disease Initial Appointment
At the beginning, people are most likely to seek advice from the primary healthcare providers. They may subsequently refer them to rheumatologists who specialize in the treatment of joint diseases.
- What Patients Can Do for Initial Appointment
When Adult-Onset Still’s disease patients make an appointment with a specialist doctor, they should enquire if there is anything they need to do in advance, like fasting for any specific test. They should also make a list bearing the following information.
- Noting down symptoms, including when it all started & as to how often it flares up
- Patient’s key medical information which includes any other health conditions they have been diagnosed with
- List of all medications, supplements & vitamins they are taking including dosage
- List of all questions they want to ask doctors during the initial appointment
It would be ideal to take along a friend or family member to the initial appointment for Adult-Onset Still’s disease. They can help patients with remembering some information which was conveyed during the appointment in case the patient forgets. Here is a list of basic questions which Adult-Onset Still’s patients must ask the specialist doctor during appointment.
- What is it that is likely to cause my symptoms?
- What other possible causes are there in my case?
- Which tests do I need to undergo?
- Is my condition likely to be temporary or chronic?
- Which is the best course of action to tackle my problem?
- What kind of alternative options do I have to the approach you are suggesting?
- I am also having other health conditions; how is it possible for me to best manage them together?
- Are there any type of restrictions I will need to follow?
- Will I need to see any other specialist for my condition?
- Are you having any brochures or printed material with information about my ailment?
- Which website do you recommend I refer to for more information on the subject?
Patients should not hesitate to ask any number of relevant questions which come to their mind.
- What Patients Can Expect from Specialist Doctors
Adult-Onset Still’s disease specialist doctors or rheumatologists are likely to ask a number of questions to patients including some or all of the following.
- When did these symptoms start?
- Did these symptoms come & go, or were they continuous?
- When is it that these symptoms most likely flare-up?
- What type of treatments or self-care measures have you made till now?
- Are there any treatments or self-care measures which helped?
- Have you at any time been diagnosed with any other type of medical conditions?
Treatment Options for Adult-Onset Still’s Disease
Doctors utilize a variety of drugs for treating Adult-Onset Still’s disease. Type of drugs which are prescribed will depend upon the severity of symptoms & whether the patient is having any side effects.
- NSAIDs or Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs – Over-the-counter NSAIDs which are commonly prescribed for Adult-Onset Still’s disease include naproxen sodium (Aleve) or ibuprofen (Motrin IB, Advil) & which can help with inflammation & mild joint pain. Moreover, stronger NSAIDs are also available by prescription. However, NSAIDs are also found to damage liver, therefore these patients will need to undergo regular blood tests in order to keep check on their liver function.
- Steroids – Most people having Adult-Onset Still’s disease require to be treated with steroids like prednisone. These are very powerful drugs which reduce inflammation but may at the same time also lower body resistance to infections & thereby increase risk of developing osteoporosis.
- Methotrexate – Methotrexate (Trexall) is another medication which is often prescribed in combination with prednisone for Adult-Onset Still’s disease patients. This allows prednisone dosage to be reduced when combined.
- Biologic Response Modifiers – These drugs like etanercept (Enbrel), adalimumab (Humira) & infliximab (Remicade) have shown some promise in treating Adult-Onset Still’s disease, but long-term benefits of these drugs are still unknown. When other medications have not worked, doctors would then suggest trying rituximab (Rituxan), tocilizumab (Actemra) or anakinra (Kineret).
Clinical Trials for Adult-Onset Still’s Disease
Hospitals committed to Adult-Onset Still’s disease patients are often involved in conducting medical research in helping people live longer & healthier lives. Clinical trials are basically research studies which are conducted with involvement of volunteer participants. These live human studies often help doctors arrive at a better understanding so as to diagnose, treat & prevent a variety of diseases & health conditions. Many healthcare institutions across the world have thousands of ongoing clinical trials & research studies in coordination with numerous other national & international medical centers. These researchers continuously develop newer studies, so Adult-Onset Still’s disease patients must ask their healthcare provider as to any active clinical trial is available for them at present, in case they are interested.
Lifestyle & Home Remedies for Adult-Onset Still’s Disease
Following measures are meant to make the most of their health for patients having Adult-Onset Still’s disease.
- Understanding Medications – Even when patients are symptom-free for some days, they will still need to continue taking medications as per recommendations of the doctor. Moreover, controlling inflammation will also help reduce risk of complications.
- Supplements in Diet – In case Adult-Onset Still’s disease patients are taking high doses of prednisone, they should talk to doctors about taking more of vitamin D & calcium supplements in order to help prevent osteoporosis.
- Regular Exercise – Although Adult-Onset Still’s disease patients may not want to work out when their joints are aching, exercise is an important element & therefore recommended for all types of arthritis. Exercise in fact enables patients maintain range of motion while relieving stiffness & pain.
Low Cost Orthopedic Treatments in India
India is presently well known across the world as an ideal medical tourism destination providing high quality of low cost bone & joint treatments including treatments for Adult-Onset Still’s Disease to international patients. Featuring an extraordinary pool of orthopedic doctors & surgeons, quality of healthcare available in this country is at par with the best in the world. An extensive network of nationally & internationally accredited multispecialty hospitals, are also equipped with the latest technologies to accept a wide spectrum of medical challenges. Moreover, most highly skilled nurses & professional staff managing these medical institutions are English speaking & which can be a comforting factor for the international patient.
Treatments for Adult-Onset Still’s Disease with Orthopaedic Surgery India
Orthopaedic Surgery India is one of the first highly reputed specialist medical tourism companies based in South Asia. Associated with a wide network of orthopedic surgeons & multispecialty hospital facilities, they are well placed to offer a variety of low cost bone & joints procedures to international patients without compromising on quality. Seamless vital services offered by Orthopaedic Surgery India begin with the first telephonic conversation with the patient & go on to identifying the best available doctor & hospital facility for treatment. Other essential services which follow include assisting in obtaining medical visas, warm receptions at airports on arrival for treatments, convenient arrangements for local travel & comfortable accommodation options within budgets, timely schedules of treatment procedures without waiting periods, follow-up evaluation checks & an affectionate farewell at airports when patients move back home.